Any fire alarm system consists of subsystem parts or components no matter the system was :
1 Conventional fire alarm system or,
2 Addressable fire alarm system or,
3 Wireless fire alarm system There are some of fire alarm system parts that are essential in any design and others are optional or applied according to certain cases.
The essential fire alarm system parts are:
1- Fire alarm control panel:
Of course the fire alarm panel is essential part of any fire alarm system because it is considered the brain of the system. It receives the alarm signal from the initiating devices or detectors and send or transmit a signal to fire fighting people or activate audible devices to evacuate the building.
It could be conventional or addressable fire alarm panel depending on the system applied. See the difference between conventional and Addressable fire alarm system.
2- Fire alarm Manual Call Point ( fire alarm push button )
In any design of home fire alarm or office even factory fire alarm system; manual call points are installed.
The reason for this obligation is that in case of early fire some detectors are not yet energized so if any person was there (at place of fire initiating ) and saw the beginning of fire break out he will push immediately the manual call point to send alarm signal to the fire fighting people and don’t wait unit fire to breakout.
One more thing is recommended is to put a Polycarbonate protective cover on your manual pull station to prevent false alarms specially at home (if you have kids) and also at yards in large factories and warehouses.
This plastic cover is used to guarantee that there is a real fire and some one is removing the cover and pulling the manual pull station Any fire alarm manual pull station should be accompanied by flusher& sounder unit to indicate alarm condition for the firefighters.
3- Smoke detector:
The smoke detector is used in almost 95% of fire alarm installation. It is applied widely in houses , hotels , airports and other applications.
There is a detector that has smoke detection and self buzzer voice warning in case of alarm ,it is very useful in houses
4- Heat detector:
There are two types of heat detectors:
a- Rate of rise heat detector: This type of detector is sensing the change of the temperature in a given time (example: if there is a temperature rise of 10 degrees in one minute ;there is a fire).
b- Fixed temperature heat detector: This type of detector is sensing when the temperature reaches a certain limit (example: if the temperature reaches 60 degrees Celsius it triggers an alarm signal to the control panel) There are heat detector which combines the two types(ROR+FX) in one unit.
It is really a practical double check solution which is better than individual of each.
These are the primary and the common fire alarm parts used in any alarming system.
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Fire alarm design is a very important stage that you have to concentrate on and give it more time so that you can fulfill your desire of securing your property or your real estate from fire any damage.
Fire alarm design is a complicated matter and needs experiences personnel to design.
But we will give some guides about fire alarm system installation in a form of questions you can use it even for your home alarm system?
Many people don’t give the design phase a considerable time and the following is an example for the consequences:
Consider a manager of a “shipping office” is going to install a fire alarm system in the headquarter building to protect important and valuable documents, he can just say:
“Put here 3 manual call points and put here in the ceiling 10 heat detectors and put the fire alarm panel in my office to monitor“
This is extremely wrong and you as a fire alarm designer should ask that person the following questions:
- Why you put 3 manual call points? May be just one is enough!
- What is the recommended places to put the manual call point?
- Why you put heat 10 detectors in the ceiling , why 10? may be 2 is enough!
- Why you chose heat detector type, not smoke detector or flame detector?
- What spacing did you apply between detectors?
- Why you chose to put the fire alarm panel the office (always closed room)? Is the right?
- Don’t you want to know how a fire alarm installer will wire your system? how to wire and connect the fire alarm system?
- What places you should consider before fire alarm system installation for fire alarm maintenance or fire alarm testing thereafter?
There are a lot of questions that should be asked and answered before you install a fire alarm system or security alarm system specially when you are going to install a commercial fire alarm in a factory because these commercial alarm systems will cost you a lot of money.
Any of the fire alarm companies or the fire alarm installers who are specialized in fire and security systems you are going to deal with, you should ensure that they are providing you all fire alarm system parts are UL or CE listed (having the UL or CE marking) specially when you are installing the system in the European union; it means that these parts were checked and approved.
Also you have to check and accept their design , how would you know if they are right or wrong before you spend a lot of money?
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